The equal area projection retains the relative size of area throughout a map. So that means at any given region, it keeps the true size and area of features.

The central meridian is the center line of longitude for projection systems. Projected coordinate systems often use it as a reference point for a x-origin.

If you’re in need of a visual reference guide to map projection types, this goldmine of the top 50 global map projections used by cartographers will help.

When you place a cone on the Earth and unwrap it, this results in a conic projection. Examples are Albers Equal Area Conic and the Lambert Conformal Conic.

Rhumb lines (or loxodrome) have constant bearings and cross all meridians at the same angle. They are not the shortest distance between 2 points on a sphere

The azimuthal projection plots the surface of Earth using a flat plane. For example, common azimuthal projections are gnomonic, stereographic & orthographic

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) segments the Earth into 60 zones (each UTM zone is 6°) and projects each zone with an upright cylinder of its own.