There are several ways to help readers understand map scale and distance. For example, cartographers use scale bars, locator maps, stated and ratio scale.

When you place a cone on the Earth and unwrap it, this results in a conic projection. Examples are Albers Equal Area Conic and the Lambert Conformal Conic.

Cartographers use lines to show the movement of phenomenon (people, ideas or money) in flow maps. To show the magnitude, they change the width of flow lines

Equal intervals, quantile, natural breaks, pretty breaks- data classification methods generate different choropleth maps. We explain the types of maps here.

The azimuthal projection plots the surface of Earth using a flat plane. For example, common azimuthal projections are gnomonic, stereographic & orthographic

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) segments the Earth into 60 zones (each UTM zone is 6°) and projects each zone with an upright cylinder of its own.